Series 2 - Correspondence: Tasmanian Collection 1893-1916 and French Collection 1923-1976
Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford


Date Range1893 - 1976, Most 1893-1916
ProvenanceWestlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Description

This series can be loosely divided into correspondence with:

1. Edward Burnett [E. B.] Tylor
2. Ernest Westlake
3. Aubrey Westlake

1. The correspondence with Edward Burnett Tylor dates from 1893 to 1906 and includes letters from Henry Ling Roth, W. L. Williamson, Joseph Paxton Moir, A. W. Howitt and others. These letters are mostly concerned with Tasmanian Aboriginal stone implements. They predate Ernest Westlake's journey to Tasmania and have no direct relationship with him. It appears that someone in the Pitt Rivers Museum in the past (possibly Henry Balfour, who studied the Westlake Collection from 1923) placed this correspondence with the Westlake Papers.

2. The correspondence with Ernest Westlake dates from 1908 to 1916 and can be divided into three groups: letters to his children, Aubrey and Margaret Westlake, from 1908 to 1910 documenting, in detail, his time in Tasmania; letters from Joseph Paxton Moir and J. W. Beattie, F. A. Bather and other papers from 1910-1916 mostly concerned with collecting and shipping stone implements from Hobart to London; letters and papers Ernest Westlake mostly formed while in Tasmania, including correspondence with Fritz Noetling, Henry Dresser Atkinson among others from 1908-1910, and notes of colonial settlers' memories of the Aborigines in the 1890s.

3. The correspondence with Aubrey Westlake dates from 1923 to 1976 and includes letters to, and from, Henry Balfour, T. K. Penniman and Donald Baden-Powell as well as a short biography of Ernest Westlake by Aubrey Westlake. These letters are mostly concerned with the progress and development of research by scholars studying Westlake's Tasmanian and French Collections in Oxford.

Note: Many of Aubrey Westlake’s letters dating from the same period, and with several of the same correspondents included in this series are housed in Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History and in Series 13, Westlake Collection Related Documents file 1934. 83-86, Pitt Rivers Museum.

Most of the envelopes listed in this series have had the stamps removed.

The folder and folio numbers shown in the 'Control' field under each item were assigned by Rebe Taylor in 2000.


Inventory Listing

Correspondence from Priscilla Wells, John Watt Beattie, Fritz Noetling and others, papers relating to Westlake's arrival in Hobart, Tasmanian Aboriginal practices, stone tools, colonial encounters and Truganini: 1889 - 1911
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection, Folder 1B, Box 1 Folios 1-45 Correspondence and Papers relating to Tasmanian Aborigines and stone tools'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

1 piece of folded cardboard [images 2-5] which previously contained various pages of handwritten notes and correspondence [including images 5-31]. On the front cover is handwritten in pencil in large letters: 'From J. W. Beattie' and, in a different hand, notes in ink that explain that Aubrey Westlake is Ernest Westlake's son and that make reference to a letter to Ernest Westlake from J. W. Beattie [images 87-91] and to the article by John Watt Beattie, 'Our Straits Islands' The Mercury, of ‘June 12, 1911’. [Note: this article was in fact published on 17 June 1911. A copy is held in: [images 5-10, WEST00327, 'Looseleaf notes removed from Exercise Books 4, 14, 17 and 19', Series 4, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers]. The handwriting of the notes in ink suggests they may have been made by T.K. Penniman.

1 lined page half-filled with handwriting by Ernest Westlake entitled: 'Copy of M.S. Notes by J. W. Beattie' [image 5]. [These notes are duplicated twice in Exercise Book 4, under the headings: ‘Interview with Mr G. H. Rayner’ and ‘The last fight of the Aborigines. Beattie’s MS journal Aug 29 1896’: [images 2 and 17, WEST00310, 'Exercise Book 4', Series 4, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

13 looseleaf pages with handwritten notes, mostly in ink, with the reverse left blank, formerly kept in the folded cardboard entitled 'From J. W. Beattie' [images 2-5]. The author is not given but it is possible these notes were recorded by John Watt Beattie. Some of the pages have been numbered, but the numbers do not run sequentially throughout. The notes include personal memories of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people and have various following headings: 'Walter [?] A B Gellibrand T. Bath [?] 2/11/89' [images 6-7]; 'W A B Gellibrand Las Club 1 Oct 91' [images 8-17]; 'Donald MacMillan 16 June 1891 [images 18-19]; 'From Donald MacMillan, April 11 1894' [images 20-25]; and 'anonymous 1A' [images 26-31].

1 letter to Ernest Westlake from Priscilla Wells, 5 August 1908 [images 32-39]. This letter makes reference to travelling to Melbourne, Adelaide and Tasmania. [Due to an imaging error, part of the page is not visible in image 36].

1 newspaper clipping entitled: 'Personal', The Mercury, 14 November 1908, partly torn and in 3 pieces. Markings made with ink highlight the paragraph that begins: 'Mr. Ernest Westlake has arrived here from London on a special mission'. [Westlake refers to this clipping in: [image 51, WEST00011, draft/copy of a letter to Fritz Noetling from Ernest Westlake, 23 November 1908, 'Correspondence from Priscilla Wells, John Watt Beattie, Fritz Noetling and others, papers relating to Westlake's arrival in Hobart, Tasmanian Aboriginal practices, stone tools, colonial encounters and Truganini: 1889 - 1911', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

5 Letters from Tasmania residents to Ernest Westlake from November 1908 - May 1910 [2 undated]: F. B. Shandlands [?], S. A. Hughes, Henry D. [Dresser] Atkinson; J. A. Jenkine and Miss F. H. Suttcliff [images 45-47, 52-61]. These letters mostly make reference to information about Tasmanian Aborigines that might interest Ernest Westlake [Note: Ernest Westlake transcribes an advertisement he is placing in The Mercury requesting information about the Aborigine in: [image 72, WEST00021, Letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake, 6 December 1908, 'Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: September 1908 - December 1908', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

1 letter to Ernest Westlake from Fritz Noetling and 2 copies/drafts of letters to Fritz Noetling from Ernest Westlake from 16-23 November 1908 [images 42-44 and 48-51]. These letters make reference to Ernest Westlake's ideas about Tasmanian stone implements. [Note: Ernest Westlake refers to Fritz Noetling in: [images 25-26, WEST00022, Letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake, 10 February 1909, 'Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: December 1908 - April 1909', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers]. John Watt Beattie also refers to Fritz Noetling in: [images 87-89, WEST00011, Letter to Ernest Westlake from John Watt Beatte, 5 February 1911, 'Correspondence from Priscilla Wells, John Watt Beattie, Fritz Noetling and others, papers relating to Westlake's arrival in Hobart, Tasmanian Aboriginal practices, stone tools, colonial encounters and Truganini: 1889 - 1911', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

2 small black and white photographs with envelope:

1. small girl sitting on a midden, with writing on the reverse: 'Native Quarry and shell heap, Roarmy Beach Tasmans Peninsular showing ashes of fires and shells and flints’.

2. man and a boy looking for stone implements. Handwritten in ink on the reverse is: ‘Native quarry on Spurs of Mt Communication’, with an additional handwritten note in pencil: ‘Salter’s Ridge?’.

1 copy or draft of a letter to Joseph Paxton Moir from Ernest Westlake, Fordingbridge, England, of 14 November 1910 [images 78-80]. This letter makes reference to shipping stone implements and sending animal bones to Baldwin Spencer.

2 receipts and 2 letters to Ernest Westlake from John Watt Beattie: 2 receipts of 6 June 1910 and 4 February 1911 for 10 pounds paid to Joseph Paxton Moir for work carried out for Ernest Westlake [images 74 and 83]; 2 letters of 5 February 1911 and 6 July 1911. These letters make reference to: the journals of George Augustus Robinson; the Bass Strait Islands; the Field Naturalists' Club; the Royal Society; Fritz Noetling; a water-colour painting entitled 'Native Camp or Hut'; Joseph Paxton Moir.

1 letter to Ernest Westlake from Nicholas Stoetz, Port Darwin, 16 August 1910 [images 76-77]. This letter makes reference to stone implements in the Northern Territory.

1 letter to Ernest Westlake from N [?] Muirhead, High Commissioner's Office, London of 10 December 1910 [images 81-82]. This letter refers to the Honourable John McCall.

4 pages of notes by Ernest Westlake: 2 small pieces of paper with notes relating to the labeling of stone implements [images 62-63]; 1 sheet with notes on both sides that make reference to Truganini's skeleton and include a draft of a letter regarding the manuscript/journal of George Augustus Robinson [images 70-71]; 1 page, partially filled with notes, that make reference to [Alexander] Morton and stone implements from Murchison River [images 72-73].

Further notes and cross references:

There is extensive correspondence from Joseph Paxton Moir to Ernest Westlake from 1910 - 1916 in [WEST00038 and WEST00039, Series 2].

Ernest Westlake's interview notes with Henry Dresser Atkinson are in : [images 2-4, 10-12, WEST00002, 'Notebook 2', Series 3, pages 1-7, 19-23, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 1b, Folios 1-45
Date range 1889 - 1911, mostly from 1908-1911    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00011 Box Number 1 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Aubrey Westlake Correspondence: Tasmanian Collection, 1923-1976
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection, Folder 2B, Box 1. Correspondence from Aubrey Westlake 1923-1976 and other related papers'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

6 letters to Henry Balfour from Aubrey Westlake from September 1923 to January 1929 [images 2-15]. These letters are mostly concerned with Henry Balfour's research on Ernest Westlake's collection of Tasmanian stone implements. They include references to: sending Balfour Ernest Westlake's 6 Tasmanian notebooks [WEST00001-WEST00006, 'Notebooks 1-6', Series 3, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers]; W. J. Sollas' research on Ernest Westlake's French eolith collection; [Henry Balfour, 1925].

1 page of rough notes, undated and unsigned, on letter head of the Hotel de Superbagnere, Luchon, regarding the monetary value of Ernest Westlake's Tasmanian stone implement collection at his death [images 16-17]. These notes may have been written by Henry Balfour, as suggested by both the handwriting and Aubrey Westlake's mention of the Estate Duty Office in a letter to Henry Balfour of 23 August 1925 [images 6-7].

1 letter to T. K. Penniman from the Manager of the Westminster Bank Oxford, 8 May 1939, that makes reference to records of previous payments into Ernest Westlake's account [images 18-19].

1 letter to T. K. Penniman from Aubrey Westlake 23 January 1940 [images 20-21]. This letter makes reference to a payment Aubrey Westlake received for the Ernest Westlake collection of Tasmanian implements, a promise that he will one day receive a 'type set' of implements from the collection, and his 'assumption' that the name 'The Westlake Collection' be used by the Pitt Rivers Museum.

1 large, yellow envelope on which is handwritten: 'correspondence between Aubrey Westlake and Donald Baden-Powell concerning the Westlake Collection of 'eoliths' from Auvergne, France, on loan to D. B-P. [Donald Baden-Powell] Passed to R. R. L. [?] by Francis B-P [Baden-Powell] following his father's death' [images 22-23]. (Donald Baden-Powell of the Geology Department, University of Oxford, studied Ernest Westlake's French eolith collection from 1953 to about 1968).

10 letters to Donald Baden-Powell from Aubrey Westlake from September 1953 to 4 July 1963 and 4 letters in response from January 1960 to August 1976 [images 24-53]. These letters are mostly concerned with Donald Baden-Powell's research on Ernest Westlake's collection of French eoliths/stone artefacts: Aubrey Westlake makes repeated enquiries into Baden-Powell's progress and to the possible publication of a manuscript paper on the Westlake Collection of eoliths by J. Reid Moir. Baden-Powell makes reference to: taking photographs of the eoliths with Dr. Rust; creating a catalogue of the eoliths; the work of Max Verworn; the eolith collections of W. J. Sollas; using the Westlake eoliths for teaching purposes; and moving the eoliths to the crypt of the Bodleian Library.

3 pages of handwritten notes by Aubrey Westlake entitled 'Biographical Notes of Ernest Westlake' dated 13 August 1976 [images 54-57]. These notes make reference to: publications by Ernest Westlake; his Tasmanian and French stone implement collections; and to Donald Baden-Powell and to W. J. Sollas.

Further notes and cross references:

There is a digitised copy of Balfour, Henry, 1925 (full reference above) in: [images 105-116, WEST00362, 'Publications by Ernest Westlake, Justin B. Delair and others, 1853-1985, part 1', Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford Natural History Museum].

Many of Aubrey Westlake’s letters dating from the same period, and with several of the same correspondents included in this series, are located in WEST00338, 'Tasmanian Collection: Related Documents. 1934.83 - 86, part 2', Series 13, Pitt Rivers Museum and in Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

See WEST00354, 'Part of a draft of a memoir of his father by Aubrey Westlake', Series 15, Westlake Archive, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Further biographical notes about Ernest Westlake are in: [image 376, WEST00415, Letter to W. J. Sollas from Aubrey Westlake, 22 January 1923, 'Notes by W.J. Sollas', Series 12, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers]. [See also: Aubrey Westlake, 1923].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 2b, Folios 1-29
Date range 1923 - 1976    Quantity 0.5 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence and Loose Photographic Prints
Inventory Identifier WEST00012 Box Number 1 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor: August 1893 - October 1898
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 1 Correspondence to E. B Tylor Folios: 1-30 Aug 1893- Oct 1895'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

4 letters from W. L. Williamson of Browns River, Tasmania (with envelopes) from August 1893 to July 1897 [images 1-23] regarding Tasmanian Aboriginal stone implements Williamson sent to Tylor in exchange for 'curios' (coins and stamps) he could sell in his shop.

A letter from Professor von Lurchen [sic?] of the Museum Für Völkerkunde, Berlin, (with envelope) 16 November 1897 [images 24-26] explaining that the Tasmanian stone implements Tylor sent will be placed in the museum, and his published papers in their library.

A letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Henry Ling Roth (with envelope), postmarked 26 August 1898 [images 27-31] that makes reference to: the Barnard Davis collection of Tasmanian Aboriginal artefacts (housed in the British Museum); Roth's correspondence with James Backhouse Walker; and Henry Balfour.

2 letters from Joseph Paxton Moir (with envelopes) 21 July 1898 and 26 August 1898 [images 32-44]. These letters make reference to: Tasmanian stone implements used to make engravings; coins in Moir's collection; and W. L. Williamson. Includes some sketches. [A draft response to Paxton Moir's letter of 26 August 1898 can be found at: images 2-4, WEST00018, draft letter to Joseph Paxton Moir from Edward Burnett Tylor, 1 December 1898, 'Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor: December 1898 - July 1900 (and a draft response)', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

A letter from A. W. [Alfred William] Howitt, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 31 October 1898 [images 45-49]. This letter makes reference to: the Folklore Society; Baldwin Spencer; studying Tasmanian Aboriginal stone implements; and a manuscript by Howitt's daughter.

Further notes and cross references:

Correspondence between Henry Ling Roth and James Backhouse Walker from 1891-1899 is kept in 'XX Thirty-two letters from J. B. Walker', Roth Papers, the University of Manchester Museum. [See also: WEST00310, ‘Notebook 4’, Series 4, in Rebe Taylor, with Michael Jones and Gavan McCarthy, Stories in Stone: an annotated history and guide to the collections and papers of Ernest Westlake (1855-1922), The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre, 2012].

Edward Burnett Tylor refers to the implements W. L. Williamson sent to him in: Edward Burnett Tylor, 1893.

There is a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from W. L. Williamson, 16 October 1897, and a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Francis Fox Tuckett (referring to his visit to W. L. Williamson), 13 February 1895, Box 13A, Correspondence S-Y and Miscellaneous, Manuscript Collections Pitt Rivers Museum, Tylor Papers.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 1, Folios 1-30
Date range August 1893 - October 1898    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence and Drawings
Inventory Identifier WEST00017 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor: December 1898 - July 1900 (and a draft response).
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 2 Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor Folios: 31-54 Years: Dec 1898 - July 1900'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

1 draft letter to Joseph Paxton Moir from Edward Burnett Tylor, 1 December 1898. [Makes reference to the letter: images 37-44, WEST00017, Letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir, 26 August 1898, 'Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor: August 1893 - October 1898', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

6 letters to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir (with some envelopes) from January 1899 to July 1900 [images 5-17 and 20-37]. These letters make reference to: sending Tasmanian stone implements; including illustrations of stone implements from Moir's collection in Henry Ling Roth 1899: The Aboriginal Tasmanians; and sending photographs of stone implements. Includes some sketches of stone implements.

1 letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Henry Ling Roth, 13 February 1899. This letter makes reference to Tasmanian stone implements Tylor sent to Roth including a 'duck-bill scraper' [type of stone implement] of which Roth is doubtful.

Further notes and cross references:

A response letter to Henry Ling Roth from Edward Burnett Tylor, 14 February 1899, is part of a series of 10 letters to Henry Ling Roth from Edward Burnett Tylor from March 1897 to January 1904 in the papers of Henry Ling Roth collated for research he carried out for the 1899 (second) edition of his book The Aborigines of Tasmania kept in University of Manchester Museum.

Photographs of Tasmanian stone implements collected by Joseph Paxton Moir, including a 'duck bill scraper' were included in Roth [1899,145]. For further information on the implements and correspondence sent to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir see Rebe Taylor, 2004: 189-190 and Edward Burnett Tylor, 1900, 257-259.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 2, Folios 31-54
Date range December 1898 - July 1900    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00018 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor (and a draft response): October 1900 - May 1905
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 3 Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor Folios: 55-82 Oct 1900 - May 1905'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

4 letters to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir (with some envelopes, 1 with notes on it by Edward Burnett Tylor) dating from October 1900 to May 1905 [images 2-17, 37-44]. These letters make reference to: descriptions of stone implements sent to Edward Burnett Tylor and to a request for financial support for Moir collect more stone implements. Includes sketches of stone implements, some of which also include a sketched hand to illustrate how the implement might have been held or used.

1 letter (with envelope) to Edward Burnett Tylor from E. Dobbie, Solicitor General's Chambers, Hobart, 20 March 1900 [images 18-22]. This letter makes reference to: Tylor's letter to Dobbie of 30 January 1900; to Alexander Morton of the Tasmanian Museum sending Tylor stone implements; and to an article by James Backhouse Walker.

2 sheets with notes on both sides [images 23-26] by Joseph Paxton Moir, no date given, describing stone tools, including sketches. [Possibly these were enclosed in a letter from Joseph Paxton Moir in which states he has included 'rough sketches' , but which no longer has any sketches attached: images 6-13, WEST00020, Letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir, 10 September 1905, 'Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor (and some draft responses): July 1905 - August 1906', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

2 sheets with notes on both sides [images 29-32] by Joseph Paxton Moir entitled: 'Stone implements Tasmanian Aborigines General Classification and Explanatory Notes May 1905 JPM'.

2 sheets with notes on both sides [images 33-36] by Joseph Paxton Moir entitled: 'May 1905 List of Stone Implements (Tasmanian) Forwarded to Prof. Tylor by J. P. Moir'. Includes sketches of stone implements.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 3, Folios 55-82,
Date range October 1900 - May 1905    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00019 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor (and some draft responses): July 1905 - August 1906
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Corresp. to E. B Tylor (and some draft responses) Box 2, Folder 4 Folios: 83-115'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes:

2 draft letters to Joseph Paxton Moir from Edward Burnett Tylor, 24 July 1905 and 15 November 1905 [images 2-5 and 30-34]. These letters make reference to: stone implements sent by Moir; Tylor’s proposed new book Growth and Spread of Culture; receiving stone implements; and a photograph of Moir; and, sending Moir a photograph of Tylor.

3 letters to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir (with some envelopes; 1 with notes on it by Edward Burnett Tylor), from September 1905 to March 1906 [images 6-13, 25-29, 37-41]. These letters make reference to: stone implements sent to Tylor; a photograph of Moir (enclosed in letter 10 September 1905); corrections for Moir's 'Preface to the Camping Grounds of the Tasmanian Aborigines - the stone implements and their uses' [see images 20-21]; S. H. Wintle; Hermann Klaatch; newspaper clippings; and a photograph of Tylor.

1 photograph of Joseph Paxton Moir, and an archival plastic slip with handwritten notes by Rebe Taylor made in 2000 [Image 14]. This photograph was originally enclosed in a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir of 10 September 1905.

5 pages of handwritten notes, numbered and entitled ‘Preface to the Camping Grounds of the Tasmanian Aborigines - the stone implements and their uses' and signed 'J. P. Moir Sept 25th 1905'. [Moir suggests corrections for this essay in a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor 30 September 1905, images 25-26].

2 newspaper clippings:

1: 'Field Naturalists Club' from an unnamed and undated newspaper [images 35-36], possibly enclosed in a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Joseph Paxton Moir 26 March 1906. This clipping makes reference to: Alexander Morton; J. V. Cook; and a tree on the estate of Mr. Bisdee with toe-notches carved by Aboriginal people for climbing. [Photographs of this tree: images 2-5, WEST00028, 'Photographs - notched tree on Mr Bisdee's estate?', Series 7, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers; reference to this tree: image 23, WEST00001, 'Notebook 1', Series 3, page 39, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

2: 'Aboriginal Stone Axes' pasted onto a piece of paper with a handwritten note: 'Report of the Tasm. Royal Society's meeting "Hobart Mercury" 16/08/06'. Possibly enclosed in a letter to Edward Burnett Tylor from Ed. S. Anthony 25 August 1906. This clipping makes reference to J. E. Philp; Edward Burnett Tylor; and Fritz Noetling.

Correspondence to Edward Burnett Tylor from Ed. S. Anthony of Hobart in August 1906 that includes letter referring to stone implements; a shipping receipt from A. F. Strutt and Co.; and an envelope, possibly from Ed. S. Anthony [images 43-47].

1 draft letter to unnamed 'sir' from Edward Burnett Tylor, undated [images 48-49]. This draft letter makes reference to stone implements he has received; Tylor's illness; types of Tasmanian stone implements; comparisons with eoliths; Tylor's proposed book Growth and Spread of Culture; and Rhodes Scholars in Oxford.

Further notes and cross references:

Edward Burnett Tylor's proposed book Growth and Spread of Culture was never published. Rough drafts of some chapters are kept in Boxes 5 and 10 of the Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscripts Collections, Tylor Papers. In his introduction to Tylor's collected works, George W. Stocking, writes that Tylor's last proposed book was based on the Gifford Lectures Tylor presented in 1889 and 1890, and was to be published in 1907 [Tylor 1994, xxiii-xxiv and Rebe Taylor 2004: 187].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 4, Folios 83-115
Date range 1905 - 1906    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00020 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: September 1908 - December 1908
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 1a. Folios: 1-47, Correspondence from Ernest Westlake'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder mostly includes correspondence to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake from 24 September to 6 December 1908.

These letters are mostly written on letter head of the White Star Line's S. S. Afric and include 1 envelope and 1 (non-picture) postcard. They make reference to Ernest Westlake's departure from Southampton; life on board; stops at Capetown, Adelaide and Melbourne; meeting Baldwin Spencer and A. S. Kenyon; arriving in Hobart; meeting Joseph Paxton Moir; the work of Max Verworn, Aime Rutot and Fritz Noetling; collecting stone implements at North West Bay; meeting the Briggs family at Blackman's Bay; and meeting Edward Cotton near Swansea.

The final page [Image 74] is a printed sheet entitled 'Appendix A: The "Popular Song" In three versions. After Ling Roth'. Includes lyrics in Aboriginal language(s).

This folder also includes a letter addressed to 'Dear Aunt' from Ernest Westlake, 24 September 1909. [Note: Westlake mentions his 'Aunt Eliza' of Southampton in: [image 26, WEST00022, Letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake, 14 February 1909, 'Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: December 1908 - April 1909', Series 2, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 1a, Folios 1-47
Date range September 1908 - December 1908    Quantity 1.5 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00021 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: December 1908 - April 1909
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 2a. Folios: 48-90, Correspondence from Ernest Westlake'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes 16 letters, including 3 postcards, to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake from 12 December 1908 to 27 April 1909. Includes 3 (non-picture) postcards.

These letters make reference to: collecting stone implements and seeing middens at Edward Cotton's place at Kelvedon, and at 'Drake's Farm' at Tom Fiddler's Ground, Little Swanport River; Edward Cotton's collection of Tasmanian Aboriginal skulls; collecting stone implements at Banwell; memories of studying in Thomas Huxley's laboratory; meeting [Ronald Worthy?] Giblin, possibly near Hobart, and the Honourable Thomas Reibey and the Reverend C. G. Wilkinson in Launceston; and seeing a bone awl found at Rocky Cape, North Tasmania.

These letters also make reference to: visiting Cape Barren Island, Bass Strait and recording Aboriginal words and knowledge of stone implement manufacture from 'halfcastes' [Aboriginal people]; meeting Mrs Robinson [daughter-in-law of George Augustus Robinson] on Green Island, Bass Strait; visiting Wybalenna settlement, Flinders Island; staying with Mr Allison at Tanner's Bay, Flinders Island and meeting the Bishop of Tasmania [John Edward Mercer] with Stephen Knight in the Flinders Island school; photographing the Reverend C. G. Wilkinson stone implement in the City Electric Transforming Station, Launceston; and spending some hours in gaol in Launceston for not having the lamp lit on his bicycle.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 2a, Folios 48-90
Date range December 1908 - April 1909    Quantity 1.2 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00022 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: May 1909 - September 1909
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 3a. Folios: 91-146, Correspondence from Ernest Westlake'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes 18 letters to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake from 2 May 1908 to 19 September 1909.

These letters make reference to: photographing the collection of the Reverend C. G. Wilkinson in the City Electric Transforming Station and in the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston; to the work of Hermann Klaatsch and Charles Darwin; a failed attempt to meet John Maynard at George Town to record Aboriginal words; and meeting Bishop John Edward Mercer and discussing the place of women in the Christian church.

Also in this folder is a letter to Dr. Murray of The Scriptorium, Oxford, 14 September 1909. It was enclosed in the letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake, 14 September 1909. In that letter Ernest Westlake requests Margaret to translate the letter to Dr Murray from English into German and then forward it to him.

Further notes and cross references:

Ronald Hutton [1999, 163-166] references 5 of Ernest Westlake’s letters to Margaret and Aubrey Westlake from 11 May to 19 September 1909 to find they provide ‘a remarkable documentation of a middle-aged Edwardian gentleman in the throws of a conversion to heterodoxy’. Certainly these letters, like much of Ernest Westlake’s Notebook 4, also written at that time, are filled with unconventional philosophical and theological ideas, but they are ideas he had embraced long before his journey to Tasmania [Rebe Taylor 2004: 175-178]. It is possible that Westlake turned his attention to writing such ideas during these months because was engaged in a lengthy project photographing the stone implement collection of the Reverend C. G. Wilkinson in Launceston, and not travelling or researching.

[For full bibliographical references, and for more detail regarding Ernest Westlake's 1909 photographic project see: WEST00345, 'Publications by or about Ernest Westlake and his life', Series 1; WEST00004, 'Notebook 4', Series 3; and 'Photographs - Classified Tasmanian Stone Implements (mounted)', Series 8, in Rebe Taylor, with Michael Jones and Gavan McCarthy, Stories in Stone: an annotated history and guide to the collections and papers of Ernest Westlake (1855-1922), The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre, 2012].

Ernest Westlake also made notes in his Notebook 4 relating to the Society for Psychical Research [under the heading ‘S.P.R.’] and the Divining Rod [under the heading ‘D.R.’]. [WEST00004,' Notebook 4', Series 3, pages 27-89, 123-143, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers. See also: WEST00004, ‘ Notebook 4’, Series 3, in Rebe Taylor, with Michael Jones and Gavan McCarthy, Stories in Stone: an annotated history and guide to the collections and papers of Ernest Westlake (1855-1922), The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre, 2012].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 3a, Folios 91-146
Date range May 1909 - September 1909    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00023 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: September 1909 - February 1910
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 4a. Folios: 147 - 203, Correspondence from Ernest Westlake'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes 21 letters, including 1 (non-picture) postcard to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from 24 September 1909 to 20 February 1910.

These letters make reference to spending a second night in gaol in Launceston for not having the lamp lit on his bicycle and contacting the following men to release him: [William Frederick] Petterd; [William Harper] Twelvetrees; [Herbert Hedley] Scott, and Mr Thompson of the City Electric Transforming Station.

The letters also make reference to: communicating with the dead; presenting a lecture to a local society on the older stone age of France and England; corresponding with [John Ernest Cecil] Lord, Police Commissioner, Hobart; photographing the stone implement collection of the Reverend C. G. Wilkinson in Launceston; scouting books by [Lord Robert] Baden-Powell; visiting Aul Derrig Farm, Wesley Vale, Devonport; and meeting William Holmes of Carlton River, the Dunbabin family of Dunally at Bream Creek and Lewis May at Forest Hill, near Hobart.

Further notes and cross references:

There is a letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake that fits chronologically with the letters in this inventory, but it is housed as: [images 4-6, WEST00338, Letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake from Ernest Westlake, 25 December 1909, 'Tasmanian Collection: Related Documents. 1934.83 - 86, part 2', Series 13, Pitt Rivers Museum].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 4a, Folios 147-203
Date range September 1909 - February 1910    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00024 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Ernest Westlake: February 1910 - October 1910
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection Box 2, Folder 5a. Folios: 204 - 271, Correspondence from Ernest Westlake'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes 19 letters to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake, including 1 envelope (with notes on it) and 1 (non-picture) postcard from 28 February 1910 to 9 October 1910. The final letters are mostly on letter head of the White Star Line's S. S. Afric.

This correspondence makes reference to: reading Government records [related to Tasmanian Aborigines] in Hobart; attempting to secure the manuscript journals of George Augustus Robinson for the Mitchell Library; visiting Melton Mowbray and New Norfolk; the application of Alfred Elliott, Secretary of the Tasmanian Naturalists Field Club to join [Robert Falcon] Scott's expedition to Antartica; camping and excavating at Mole Creek Caves, North West Tasmania; attempts to view a solar eclipse at Mills Reef, south Bruny Island with [Ronald Worthy] Giblin, [Edmond Leolin] Piesse and [Pietro Paolo Giovanni Ernesto] Barrachi; and excavating middens with Joseph Paxton Moir at Adventure Bay, Bruny Island.

This correspondence also makes reference to: visiting the descendants of Fanny Cochrane Smith at Irishtown; Tasmanian Aborigines' abilities to communicate with spirits; meeting Robert Harvey at Port Cygnet; the life of Fanny Cochrane Smith; visiting north Bruny Island; the J. V. Cook stone implement collection; Fritz Noetling's attempts to prevent Ernest Westlake viewing 'native sticks' in the Museum in Hobart; visiting Kearny's Bogs, Lake Seek [Oatlands], Tom Fiddlers Ground [Syndall Quarry], Campbelltown, Ross and Launceston; leaving Tasmania; stopping at Melbourne; meeting Baldwin Spencer; viewing the stone implement collection of Mr Stanford; life on board the S. S. Afric; and stopping at Capetown.

The final letter is to 'Dear A' [possibly to Aubrey Westlake] from Ernest Westlake and is sent from Wincanton, England. It makes reference to life at Sidcot School.

Further notes and cross references:

In his letter to Aubrey and Margaret Westlake of 8 June 1910 [images 71-79], Ernest Westlake records his visit to the quarry at Kearny's Bogs, Lake Seek. He describes the quarry to his children as ‘the only flint quarry that was ever "occupied" by a white army’, but when he interviewed locals they denied the quarry had ever existed. Ernest Westlake had noted, from Government Records relating to the Aborigines, how a 'detachment' of Mr Gilbert Roberston's party kept watch over a 'native flint quarry' at Kearney's Bogs in 1829: [images 2-26, WEST00316, 'Exercise Book 10', Series 4, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers]. Ernest Westlake also makes note a about Kearny's Bogs quarry in: [image 68, WEST00006, 'Notebook 6', page 131, Series 3, Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 5a, Folios 204 - 271
Date range February 1910 - October 1910    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00025 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence and notes: September 1908 - c.1910
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A manila folder entitled: 'Ernest Westlake Collection 'Miscellaneous notes' Box2, folder 1b, folios 1-5b'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

This folder includes a Letter to Ernest Westlake from H. P. Blackmore, 14 September 1908 that makes reference to Westlake's impending journey to Tasmania.

Also included are various rough notes by Ernest Westlake: 1 page entitled 'Food - Scale-fish'; 1 opened-out envelope addressed to Ernest Westlake with a description, on the reverse, of a stone tool quarry at Plenty; 2 scraps of paper.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 1b, Folios 1-5b
Date range 1908 - c. 1910    Quantity 1 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence and Loose Notes
Inventory Identifier WEST00026 Box Number 2 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence from Joseph Paxton Moir to Ernest Westlake 1910 - 1911
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection Folder 1, Box 3, Correspondence from Joseph Paxton Moir to Ernest Westlake Folios: 1-37'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

[Note: this correspondence was originally contained in the cigarette box: WEST00330, Series 2, (de-accessioned in 2008) Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

This folder includes 12 letters to Ernest Westlake from Joseph Paxton Moir from August 1910 to January 1911. They are mostly concerned with the collecting and the research work Paxton Moir carried out for Ernest Westlake, who had since returned to England, and to shipping Ernest Westlake's collection of Tasmanian stone implements from Hobart to London. They also make reference to: sending animal bones to Baldwin Spencer, Museum of Victoria; collecting stone implements at Oyster Cove and South Bruny Island; and a water-colour painting of an Aboriginal shelter by Mr Knight (1834).

Also included are 11 receipts from John Watt Beattie for research and collecting work carried out by Joseph Paxton Moir on behalf of Ernest Westlake from December 1910 to April 1911 [images 4-9 and 24-28]. These receipts list the places Paxton Moir collected in Tasmania.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 1, Folios 1-37
Date range 1910 - 1912    Quantity 1 cm, 1 object
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00038 Box Number 3 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Correspondence concerning shipping stone tools 1912-1916 (letters from Joseph Paxton Moir included)
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A manila folder entitled: 'Westlake Collection Folder 1, Box 3, Correspondence concerning shipping stone tools 1912 -1915 (letters from Joseph Paxton Moir incl.) Folios: 38-59'. Rebe Taylor named this folder in 2000 and numbered each page of the correspondence with a folio number.

[Note: this correspondence was, until 2000, housed in the cigarette box: WEST00330, Series 2, de-accessioned in 2008 from the Pitt Rivers Museum Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers].

This folder includes 8 letters to Ernest Westlake from Joseph Paxton Moir from July 1912 to May 1915 [images 17-30]. These letters are mostly concerned with packing and sending Ernest Westlake's collection, and also J. V. Cook's collection, of Tasmanian stone implements from Hobart to London during the outbreak of World War. These letters do not appear in chronological order.

This folder also contains various papers and correspondence related to shipping Ernest Westlake's Tasmanian Aboriginal stone implements from Hobart to London from May-July 1915, including: letters, postcards and invoices to Ernest Westlake from George Wheatley and Co.; printed shipping fliers; a list of 'specimens' by Joseph Paxton Moir; a draft letter by Ernest Westlake concerning customs; a memorandum from the Port of London Authority; and 2 letters to Ernest Westlake from F. A. Bather [?] of the British Museum that contain information and advice about bringing stone implements into England.

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Control Folder 2, Folios 38-63
Date range 1912 - 1916    Quantity 0.8 cm, 1 folder
Formats General Correspondence
Inventory Identifier WEST00039 Box Number 3 Location Pitt Rivers Museum: Manuscript Collections, Westlake Papers Series 2
Players Medium Navy Cut cigarette box that held the Tylor correspondence
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This box held correspondence between Joseph Paxton Moir and Ernest Westlake from 1910-1916 until 2000 when Rebe Taylor placed the letters placed in folders. In 2008 this box was de-accessioned from the Westlake Papers, Manuscripts Collection, Pitt Rivers Museum.

[Rebe Taylor incorrectly states that this box formerly held correspondence between Joseph Paxton Moir and Edward Burnett Tylor in: Rebe Taylor, 2004: 184].

Creator Westlake, Ernest (1855-1922)
Date range c. 1908 - c. 1910    Quantity 2 cm, 1 object
Inventory Identifier WEST00330 Series 2

Published by the The University of Melbourne eScholarship Research Centre and the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford, August 2010
Listed by Rebe Taylor, with Michael Jones and Gavan McCarthy
HTML edition
Updated 14 February 2017
http://web.esrc.unimelb.edu.au/WEST/WESS02.htm

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